OKUBO Nobuko

Faculty & Position:Fundamentals of Nursing/ Biobehavioral Nursing   associate professor
Contact:nobu-okubo[at]slcn.ac.jp convert [at] to @
Last Updated: Aug. 13, 2020 at 05:04

Researcher Profile & Settings


  • Master (Nursing)

Academic & Professional Experience

  • Apr. 2017- TodayThe University of Tokushima
  • Apr. 2008- TodaySchool of Nursing, St. Luke's International University
  • 1992Hospital, Mie University

Association Memberships



  • 修士(看護学)
  • 博士(看護学)

Research Activities

Research Areas

  • Life sciences / Basic nursing

Published Papers

  • The Effects of clinical nurse specialist interventions for secondary stroke prevention: a systematic and narrative review
    Maki FUJII, Nobuko OKUBO
    Journal of Japanese Academy of Neuroscience Nursing 5(2) 57-70 Jul. 2019 [Refereed]
  • Literature Review:Complex Feelings of Patients with Acute Aphasia
    OKUBO Nobuko, Namiko KARUBE, Yukie KOBAYASHI, Sumiko SATAKE, Kihoko,Rie SUGIYAMA, Takeshi HYAKUTA, Rie MARUYAMA
     4(2) 57-65 Apr. 2018 [Refereed]
  • The Integration of "Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body","Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body:Practicum",and "Health Assessment" in Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing Program:Second Report How the Class is Conducted
    OKUBO Nobuko
     Vol.4 Mar. 2018
  • The Integration of "Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body","Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body:Practicum",and "Health Assessment" in Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing Program:First Report Outline of the Subject
    OKUBO Nobuko
     Vol.4 103-108 Mar. 2018
  • State of the "Service-Learning Course" at St.Luke's International University
    OKUBO Nobuko
     Vol.4 85-90 Mar. 2018
  • Teaching Method for "Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body" and "Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body:Practicum" Employing Nursing Framework,and its Spread
    OKUBO Nobuko
     Vol.4 42-46 Mar. 2018
  • Characteristics and Outcomes of Study Abroad Programs at St. Luke's International University-Students' Learning and Growth-
    OKUBO Nobuko
     Vol.4 18-23 Mar. 2018
  • Concept Analysis of Innovation in Nursing in Japan
    Yuko Numata, Harumi Kadohama, Nobuko Okubo, Ryo Hayase, Retsu Mikami, Michiko Hishinuma
     17 95-103 2018 [Refereed]
  • Diffusion Process of Evidence Based Innovative Nursing Care Considered From Case Study of "Sitting Without Back Support NursingCare Program"
    Kyoko Sasaki, Nobuko Okubo, Kazuyo Suzuki
    Japanese Journal of Nursing Art and Science 15(3) 265-275 Jan. 2017 [Refereed]
  • A Literature and Syllabus Review of Anatomy and Physiology Studies in Basic Nursing Education
    OKUBO Nobuko
     15(2) 163-171 Aug. 2016
  • Clinical diffusion process of evidence-based nursing care:Discussion of sitting position without back support care program based on Rogers' theory
    Nobuko OKUBO, Kyoko SASAKI, Kazuyo SUZUKI, Kayoko TAKAHASHI
    Journal of Japanese Academy of Neuroscience Nursing VOL.3(No.2) 49-58 Jun. 2016 [Refereed]
  • Aromatherapy Research Trends & Issues in Nursing-A Review of Literature from 2009 to 2014-
    TAKAYANAGI Haruki, OKUBO Nobuko
    Bulletin of St.Luke's International University Vol.2 10-10 Mar. 2016
  • Effectiveness of the Sitting Position Without Back Support
    Nobuko OKUBO
    Australasian Journal of Neuroscience Volume 25(No.1) 31-39 May 2015 [Refereed]
  • Effectiveness of the "Elevated Position" Nursing Care Program in promoting the reconditioning of patients with acute cerebrovascular disease
    Nobuko Okubo
    JAPAN JOURNAL OF NURSING SCIENCE 9(1) 76-87 2012 [Refereed]
    Aim: Over 34,000 Japanese patients suffer from a persistent disturbance of consciousness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Elevated Position Nursing Care Program (EPNCP) in promoting the reconditioning of patients with acute cerebrovascular disease (ACD). The primary assumption of this study was that they could experience the reconditioning process and would reach a reconditioned state through their involvement in the EPNCP, thus improving their level of consciousness and quality of life. Method: A historical controlled trial study, based on an intention-to-treat analysis of hospitalized patients with ACD who became participants the day after starting medical or surgical treatment, was used. Trained nurses implemented the EPNCP from May to September 2005 for an experimental group of 45 participants. The data on two independent control groups of 92 and 40 patients with ACD were gathered from historical medical records. The six measures were: Japan Coma Scale; Level of Cognitive Functioning Assessment Scale; number of days from the intervention to sitting in a wheelchair; number of participants who left the intensive care unit (ICU) by wheelchair; Barthel Index; and modified Rankin Scale. Results: Significant differences were found regarding the number of participants who left the ICU by wheelchair, length of time from the EPNCP's commencement to the wheelchair-sitting position, and the Barthel Index 1 week after leaving the ICU. Conclusion: The EPNCP was safe for the reconditioning of patients with ACD and somewhat effective in improving their physical function. A comprehensive nursing care program now exists for elevating patients with cerebrovascular disease during the early phase following the onset of symptoms or immediately after surgery. Further research should be conducted, extending the duration of the intervention program and the length of the measurement period, followed by a careful analysis of the results.
  • The Developing Process of People-centered Care in Relay Symposium : The report of St. Luke's College of Nursing 21th Century COE Program 7th International Relay Symposium "Let's Learn about Our Body with Chilren!"
    Sakyo Yumi, Matsutani Miwako, Yamazaki Yoshimi, Nakayama Hisako, Okubo Nobuko, Ishimoto Akiko, Mitsumori Yasuko, Tada Atsuko, Indo Keiko, Setoyama Yoko, Muramatsu Junko, Oyama Atsuko, Iwanabe Kyoko, Mori Akiko, Arimori Naoko, Imai Toshiko, Hara Mizue, Hishinuma Michiko
    Journal of St. Luke's Society of Nursing Research 11(1) 116-124 Jun. 2007
    The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the St. Luke's College of Nursing 21st Century COE Program 7th International Relay Symposium "Let's Learn about Our Body with Children!" and to consider the components of people-centered care by analyzing and evaluating the process by which the symposium was conducted. The objective of the symposium was to provide methods through which five-year-old children can learn about the human body and to facilitate the meaningful exchange of opinions with the general public. The symposium was targeted for five-year-old children and their parents, as well as various specialists working with five-year-olds, such as childcare professionals, kindergarten teachers, and nurses and school health nurses. The symposium was planned and carried out in cooperation with the general public. Each event on the program was kept to within 20 minutes, and a picture story show and song and dance were included in the program to ensure that children did not lose their interest. Several things were achieved through the process of working cooperatively with the general public in order to conduct the symposium. The elements of people-centered care acquired through past COE activities were confirmed. The staff members experienced the process of "drawing out and exposing (ascertaining them from each other) hidden needs within the community, and shifting activities towards cooperative efforts with specialists and further developing those activities". In addition, a new important element in such activities, "ascertaining things from each other", was uncovered. The symposium also allowed us to shift the focus of cooperation with the general public, something that we had initially been searching for ways of achieving effectively, towards vibrant and energetic cooperation with the community. Moreover, it was confirmed that the process of cooperation with the general public has continued to develop, moving towards symposiums whereby the community and specialistswork together in search of further progress in their activities. Several future issues were re-identified: the status of further cooperation with the community, and concrete methods for evaluating methods by which five-year-olds can learn about the body.
  • A Study of Factor and Causal Model Structure Analyses Related to E-Learning Neeeds of Professional Nurses
    Okubo Nobuko, Kamei Tomoko, Kajii Fumiko, Horiuchi Shigeko, Hishinuma Michiko, Toyomasu Keiko, Nakayama Kazuhiro, Yanai Haruo
    Journal of Japan Academy of Nursing Science 25(1) 31-38 2005 [Refereed]
    E-learning (EL) is expected to provide a useful means of resolving existing time and physical-related restrictions imposed on the delivery of Master's level and continuing professional nursing education within Japanese colleges. Based on a recent needs survey of 1, 270 nurses working at domestic health, medical care and welfare facilities, we developed a hypothesis and model of EL causal relationships. Factor analysis and covariance structure analysis were used to explain the hypothesis and model. The following results were obtained:
    1. The desire to utilize EL will increase if concerns are reduced about lack of direct communications between participants, students learning by themselves in the absence of other students, curriculum and cost.
    2. The desire to utilize EL will increase if credits toward college degrees and nursing certifications can be earned through EL.
    These results suggest that when introducing EL as a means for Master's level and continuing professional nursing education, it is essential to provide opportunities for direct communications among and between students and faculty (e. g., occasional sessions at facilities and interactiv education); and allow students to receive credits towards college degrees and nursing certifications.
  • Effect on Autonomic Nervous System Activities of Aided and Unaided Support of the Neck in the Sitting with Back Support Position
    Japan Journal of Nursing Science 2(1) 33-40 2005 [Refereed]

Books etc

  • The Human Body in Health and IIIness
    OKUBO Nobuko
    Supervisor (editorial)
      Dec. 2017

Conference Activities & Talks

  • The implementation research of a nurse's educational program to prevent stroke recurrence
    Nobuko OKUBO
    STROKE1010 Aug. 2020 [Invited]
  • Severe Disorder of Consciousness:Case Study of a Patient-Centered Care
    OHTSUBO Kenji, OKUBO Nobuko
    2018 Yonsei International Nursing Conference Shaping the Future of Nursing:Pathway to Serve the Public and Nursing Profession Nov. 2018
  • Comparative Investigation of Bedside Swallowing Screening Tools in Japan and Other Countries
    SUGIYAMA Rie, OKUBO Nobuko
    2018 Yonsei International Nursing Conference Shaping the Future of Nursing:Pathway to Serve the Public and Nursing Profession Nov. 2018
  • Current State of and Issues in Nursing Care for Stroke Patients with Unilateral Spatial Neglect :Literature Review
    NAKAMURA Rie, OKUBO Nobuko
     Nov. 2018
  • The Sitting Position without Back Support
    OKUBO Nobuko
     Jan. 2018 [Invited]
  • Nobuko Okubo、Namiko Karube etal
    OKUBO Nobuko
    Literature Review; Complex Feelings of Patients with Acute Aphasia, 12th Quadrennial Congress in Opatija, Croatia. 2017 World Federation Neuroscience Nurses 12th Quadrennial Congress
  • Stroke Nursing Care in Acute to Recovery Phase
    OKUBO Nobuko
    on000478 Feb. 2016 [Invited]
  • Symposium
    on000478 Nov. 2015 [Invited]
  • Express Hope and Taste for Graduates
    OKUBO Nobuko
    on000478 Oct. 2015 [Invited]
  • Developments of the “Elevated Position” Nursing Care Program for stroke patients
    Nobuko OKUBO
    on000478 Jul. 2015 [Invited]
  • Evidence-based Nursing Practices for Stroke Patients: The outcomes and diffusion of a care program using a sitting position without back support
    OKUBO Nobuko
    nonchan31jp Mar. 2015 [Invited]
  • Evidence-based Nursing Practices : The outcomes and diffusion of a care program using a sitting position without back support
    OKUBO Nobuko
    nonchan31jp Mar. 2015 [Invited]
  • Keynote
    Nobuko Okubo
     Nov. 2014 [Invited]
  • Keynote
    OKUBO Nobuko
     Aug. 2014 [Invited]
  • Effectiveness of the 'Sitting Position Without Back Support' in Promoting the Reconditioning of Patients with Acute Cerebrovascular Disease
    Nobuko Okubo
  • Brain-machine interface(BMI)-A novel neurotechnology to translate thoughts into action to help paralyzed patients
    Nobuko Okubo
     Sep. 2013 [Invited]
  • The Development and Importance of Advance Practice Nursing in Neuroscience Nursing
    OKUBO Nobuko
     Jun. 2013
  • Synposium
     Dec. 2012 [Invited]
  • Dysphagia Screening A Japanese Model of Nursing Care BNI2012
    Nobuko Okubo
  • Synmposium
     Aug. 2012 [Invited]
  • seminar
     Dec. 2011 [Invited]
  • Synposium
     Sep. 2011 [Invited]
  • Developing an International Dysphagia Screening for Acute Stroke Patients
    Prendergast Virginia, Okubo Nobuko
    The 9th Quadrennial congress of the European Association of Neuroscience Nurses May 2011


  • Summary and Challenges with the joint College of Nursing and Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing "People-Centered Care Nursing Theory" Course
    Keiko TAKAHASHI, Megumi NAKAMURA, Noriko IBA, Nobuko OKUBO, Mika MORII
     131-136 Mar. 2020
  • 認知症者へのアロマセラピー使用の現状とその有用性に関する文献検討 使用目的と使用方法の現状に焦点を当てて
    武藤 なな, 大久保 暢子
    聖路加看護学会学術大会講演集 23回 54-54 Sep. 2018
  • 成人急性期における身体抑制が及ぼす身体的弊害の文献検討
    高橋 翔平, 大久保 暢子
    聖路加看護学会学術大会講演集 23回 53-53 Sep. 2018 [Refereed]
  • 【生活機能のアセスメントでズレない、ブレない!脳外看護】(Part2)形態機能学から学ぶ脳神経看護とは
    大久保 暢子
    ナース専科 38(8) 18-18 Jul. 2018
  • 世界における子どものヘルスリテラシー向上を目指した介入プログラムに関する文献レビュー
    瀬戸山 陽子, 稲葉 史子, 大久保 暢子, 白木 和夫, 世良 喜子, 原山 千咲, 三宅 美千代, 村松 純子
    小児保健研究 77(講演集) 176-176 May 2018
  • 未就学児における健康教育の現状に関する国内文献の検討
    三宅 美千代, 稲葉 史子, 大久保 暢子, 白木 和夫, 瀬戸山 陽子, 世良 喜子, 原山 千咲, 菱沼 典子, 村松 純子
    小児保健研究 77(講演集) 177-177 May 2018
  • 苦手を克服!作って覚える 脳血管模型(知識編)
    大久保 暢子
    脳血管内治療 2(Suppl.) S356-S356 Nov. 2017
  • Nursing Neurosurgery Session Stroke Nursing Care
    Chair OKUBO Nobuko
     Oct. 2017 [Refereed]
  • 【DNPの理念と実際-専門看護師をさらに育てる博士課程教育】米国におけるDNP養成の概要 米国の白書などからみえること
    新福 洋子, 大橋 明子, 奥 裕美, 大久保 暢子, 長松 康子
    看護研究 50(1) 39-45 Feb. 2017
  • Literature Review; Complex Feelings of Patients with Acute Aphasia,
    OKUBO NobukoンNamiko, Karube etal
    World Federation Neuroscience Nurses12th Quadrennial Congress 2017
  • 脳神経看護の専門看護師(CNS)誕生に向けて
    田村 綾子, 大久保 暢子
    Brain Nursing 32(7) 630-636 Jul. 2016
  • The Japanese Journal of Nursing Research
    Nobuko Okubo
    Process to Intervention Study:Sitting Position Without Back Support Care and Aromatherapy 49(5) May 2016
  • FY2015 Curriculum Revision for St.Luke's International University College of Nursing
    OKUBO Nobuko
    Bulletin of St.Luke's International University(2) 88-93 Mar. 2016
  • 【高次脳機能障害患者への急性期での対応 ケアが難しいケースにどう対応する?】障害部位と高次脳機能障害との関連 脳の解剖生理と高次脳機能障害の看護
    軽部 奈弥子, 大久保 暢子
    脳の看護実践 1(5) 14-18 Feb. 2016
  • session
    OKUBO Nobuko
    St.Luke's Academia 45-45 Jan. 2016
  • 著者をエンパワメントする査読コメントを書こう
    山本 則子, 浅野 みどり, 荒木 暁子, 和泉 比佐子, 牛久保 美津子, 内田 陽子, 遠藤 淑美, 大久保 暢子, 落合 亮太, 小野 智美, 片岡 弥恵子, 河野 あゆみ, 佐伯 圭一郎, 佐伯 由香, 酒井 明子, 佐藤 紀子, 清水 安子, 鈴木 みずえ, 田中 美智子, 長谷川 真澄, 春名 めぐみ, 眞嶋 朋子, 三木 明子, 宮下 光令, 吉沢 豊予子, 吉田 俊子, 宮本 有紀, 日本看護科学学会和文誌編集委員会
    日本看護科学学会学術集会講演集 35回 451-451 Nov. 2015
  • session
    on000478 Oct. 2015
  • oral session
    井上 昌子, 遠藤 奈央, 岩田 明子, 鈴木 佳保子, 男澤 瑞希, 大石 貴寛, 設楽 恵子, 松井 憲子, 古谷 桂子, 大久保 暢子
    on000478 38(1) 72-72 Oct. 2015
  • 看護職が行うバイタルサイン測定の実態 2001年調査との比較をふまえ
    伊東 美奈子, 菱沼 典子, 大久保 暢子, 加藤木 真史, 佐居 由美, 大橋 久美子, 蜂ヶ崎 令子
    聖路加看護学会学術大会講演集 18回 26-26 Sep. 2013
  • Record of a Nine-year Student Exchange Program between St. Luke’s College of Nursing and Villanova University College of Nursing
    (38) 71-75 Mar. 2012 [Refereed]
    〔Abstract〕 Student exchange programs between St. Luke’s College of Nursing in Tokyo, Japan and VillanovaUniversity College of Nursing in Pennsylvania, United States were held eight times from 2002 to 2010.Program participants were obliged to be a part of the future development of St. Luke’s Medical Center,which consists of St. Luke’s International Hospital and St. Luke’s College of Nursing. They were alsoexpected to understand the historical relationship between the Episcopal Church in the United States and St.Luke’s Medical Center, and to become bridges between Japan and the U.S. Four Japanese students and four U.S.students joined the exchange program alternately with the financial and operative support of the AmericanCouncil. This exchange program provided the participants from St. Luke’s College of Nursing with opportunitiesto observe the excellent nursing care practices in the U.S. as well as to recognize the positive aspects ofnursing in Japan through the comparison of nursing practices in the two countries. By drawing on thefeedback received from students who participated in the exchange program, it is hoped that St. Luke’sCollege of Nursing wi
  • A Study on the Development of Computer Based Testing(CBT) for a Common Achievement Test for Nursing Colleges in Order to Maintain Students’ Competency for Practical Nursing - With Emphasis on Item Creation and Statistical Analysis of Pilot Testing -
    (38) 1-9 Mar. 2012
    〔Abstract〕 With the rapid increase of the number of nursing universities in Japan, the importance of evaluating thelevel of practical nursing ability required by graduation is increasing. Therefore, it is of urgent importance to develop a common achievement test available to nursinguniversities throughout Japan to evaluate the level of competency and knowledge required for a nursingstudent to begin clinical practice in hospitals or health facilities. For the purpose of developing such a test, 1,120 multiple choice items were made from the 18 nursingdomains, which are divided into the three areas: basic medicine, basic nursing and clinical nursing. Then pilot testing was conducted in both paper-based and computer-based forms with the 730 students and220 students respectively. The total of the alpha reliability of the three areas turned out to be high. Therefore the usefulness of the computer-based examination was confirmed in comparison with the paperbasedtest.
  • The Usefulness of‘ How to Learn’ Teaching Materials for Reducing New Nursing Students’ Learning-related Difficulties
     15(2) 9-15 Jul. 2011
    Summary :Previous research indicated that nursing students, in the introductory period of their nursing studies, facedlearning related difficulties, specifically :“insufficient understanding of course priorities”;“confusion related toinexperienced learning style for group discussion” and“ no skills for writing a report”. To reduce their difficulties,the fundamental nursing faculty gave them a detailed explanation of :(1)the purpose of each class and therelationship among classes using concept map ;(2)how to manage a group discussion and(3)how to write a report,both of which were in manual format.The aim of this research was identify the students’ usefulness of these teaching materials. Focus group interviewswere conducted ; groups consisted of nursing college students who had used these teaching materials. Theywere interviewed about difficulties in their first year at college and the collected data were analyzed by creatingcategories.The result showed that using a concept map encouraged understanding of course priorities. Also, manuals wereuseful learning materials as a resource for conducting group discussion and report writing. Educators need
  • Student Affairs Section FY2010 Activity Report: The Third Year Approach for Suitable Learning Environment.
    (37) 47-52 Mar. 2011
    In 2008,the Student Affiirs Division of St. Luke's College of Nursing launched an initiativefor acquiring appropriate communication skills and basic manners so that students caneffectively fulfill this institution's educational objectives and benefit from awell-rounded campus life. It is three years since students started the activitiesunder the slogan of “Establishing a suitable learning environment“. In 2010,they continued to carry on these activities, making a valuation of what they did forthese three years. The actual activities in this year were: promotion of exchangegreetings, implementation of public relations at the school festival,campaign for collecting plastic bottle caps. The feedback on the aboveactivities from their peers and teachers showed the expansion of good manner awareness.However, some bad manners were still pointed out, and the activities to promotegood manners needed to be continued. In order to further promote and appreciatethese activities, faculty staff could show support for such studentinitiatives, cooperating closely with other relating committee members.
  • 看護学導入期の学生の困難性に対応したWeb教材の開発
    佐居 由美, 石本 亜希子, 伊東 美奈子, 大橋 久美子, 大久保 暢子, 佐竹 澄子, 蜂ヶ崎 令子, 菱沼 典子
    聖路加看護学会誌 15(1) 17-26 Feb. 2011
  • A Review of Difficulties Encountered by New Nursing Students
     15(1) 9-16 Feb. 2011
    This study was carried out to clarify the difficulties faced by new students starting a curriculum of nursingscience offered at a nursing college. The research design utilized exploratory factor analysis. A group interviewregarding difficulties was conducted while an observer surveyed the reactions of the interviewees in accordancewith an observation guide. Analysis was conducted by categorizing the research data, deriving subcategories andcategories, and then calculating data sets to extract the degree of difficulties encountered.As a result, 5 categories of difficulties were derived, listed as follows in order from the most data gatheredto the least: “different learning style,” “new environment,” “insufficient understanding of course priorities,”“inconvenience of learning resources,” and “difference in desire and motivation to study nursing science.”These difficulties can be surmised to stem from the state of Japan’s secondary school/university education andgenerational characteristics. There is a need to develop a beginning nursing program based on those factors in thefuture.
  • A Survey on the Experience of Daily Life Activities of the Freshman of the Nursing Colleges and Universities in Japan
     15(1) 27-34 Feb. 2011
    The aim of this research was to identify the experiences of daily life activities of freshmen in nursing schools.This has implications for what and how we teach in our nursing courses.The questionnaire survey was distributed to 6,618 nursing students of 79 colleges and universities across Japan.Data were collected November 2007 to January 2008. The questionnaire queried students about their experiences ofdaily life activities as freshman nursing students. Human subjects protection protocol was strictly followed, e.g.all data were kept anonymous and confidential. The college research ethics committee approved the survey andresearch process.Collected questionnaires were 4,601 (69.5 %), and 4,597 were valid. The majority, 90 % , was female; 93 % hadbrothers or sisters (M=1.5); 39% lived with their grandparents and 48% moved from their homes to attend nursingschool. Half of the students had cared for older people (54%) and sick people (56%), and 33% of them had changedbaby's diaper. Regarding meals, 79% of them did not use the traditional tray, and half of them did not wash theirhands before eating. Regarding housework, they had
  • 看護学導入期の学生の困難性に対応したweb教材の活用状況
    佐居 由美, 菱沼 典子, 大久保 暢子, 伊東 美奈子, 蜂ヶ崎 令子, 大橋 久美子, 佐竹 澄子
    聖路加看護学会誌 14(3) 50-50 Sep. 2010
  • Student Affairs Section FY2009 Activity Report: The Second Year Approach for a Suitable Learning Environment.
    (36) 32-37 Mar. 2010 [Refereed]
  • The Effects of Knowing Our Body Program for Pre-Schoolers
    Okubo N, Goto K, Setoyama Y, Indoh K, Matsutani M, Tashiro J, Hishinuma M, Sakyo Y, Shiraki K, Nakayama H, Yasugahira N, Muramatsu J
    The First Asia-Pacific Conference on Health Promotion and Education Jul. 2009
  • The Effectiveness of CBPR in The Process of “Knowing Our Body” Project ―Focusing on The Coalition of People―
     13(2) 45-52 Jul. 2009 [Refereed]
    The educational program for children has been developed in order to foster people to be active for their ownhealth. This project was one of St. Luke’s College of Nursing 21st Century COE Program for last 5 years. Thiswhole program aimed to the People-Centered Care. We discussed our process of developing and implementingthe educational program through the Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) methods focusing on thecoalition that shows how people get together to the common concerns. Our project had started with the core groupof faculties in the nursing college, and expanded to community people through the network. On this expandingprocess, the project could get the regular meetings, the meeting records, the mailing list, and the financial support.This organized project could have contacts with the local communities, several kindergartens, and community people.At the same time several small groups had been organized in our project to implement our program in severalcommunities, and to evaluate the program. The project members shared each role and got responsibility. Thebalance of empowerment and competence between each community and us had moved from the imb
  • The Evaluation of Health Education Picture Books for Pre-school Children
     13(2) 37-44 Jul. 2009 [Refereed]
    Background:Though body knowledge is not common knowledge in present society, it is necessary for people tomanage health information about their body once they have been diagnosed with a disease. So it is important toconduct health education from an early age. But little is evaluated about health education materials for pre-schoolchildren. In this paper we present the evaluation of health education picture books which are made up of 7 humanbody systems.Methods:Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 91 parents via the Internet from Nov. 2007 to Mar. 2008.We used the following variables: demographic, degree of knowledge about contents of the picture books, level ofamusement, understandability.Results:The study sample consisted ofall women, and most of them were in their 30’s. The book that was readmost frequently in the study was the book about the digestive system with 95.7% of the sample reading that book.Evaluations of the “digestive system” picture book by children were: “Know all of the contents” was 6.3%; “Veryinteresting” was 64.0%; and “Easy to understand” was 90.8%. Evaluations of the “musculoskeletal system” picturebook by chil
  • Evaluation of the Integrated Nursing Practice ‘Team Challenge’ : Bridging The Gap of Theory and Practice
     13(2) 71-78 Jul. 2009 [Refereed]
  • 5 - 6 Year-old Children’s Knowledge of Their Body
     13(1) 1-7 Mar. 2009 [Refereed]
    The gorl of this research project’s aim is to have people have knowledge of the body and take initiative in their own healthcare. According to our preceding research, the best time to educate about the body is just before school age, at about 5 - 6year-old. So we are developing teaching materials, in order to help children’s understanding about the body.This paper is a research report about how much 5 - 6year-old children know about the body.In order to develop suitable educational materials, we asked parents to use a question guide to ascertain the child’s knowledge of the body. We obtained 28 responses (51.0 % response rate) 14 about boys and 14 about girls. The children were from 5 years, 0 months to 6 years, 3 months;the average age of both boys and girls was 5 years, 7 months.Our results showed that most children had some knowledge. All children could point to their body parts as they were named head, face, neck, abdomen, back, hip, leg, eye, nose, ear, mouth, and cheek. All children could name neck, abdomen, hip, eye, ear and cheek when the parents asked by pointing out the parts on the child’s body. More than 90 % of the
  • Student Affairs Section FY2008 Activity Report: Striving for a Suitable Learning Environment.
    (35) 110-117 Mar. 2009
  • Aromatherapy Research in Nursing and Its Present State.
    (35) 17-27 Mar. 2009
  • The evaluation of the picture books for 5-6 year-olds from the citizens.
     12(2) 73-79 Jul. 2008 [Refereed]
    There is a need for the average citizen to have independent knowledge of health and medical matters. We considerthat the fundamental information concerning health means knowledge about the human body. During 5-year project,we have designed picture books of 7 human body systems. At the chance to teach local citizens with 5 of thesebooks, the study was conducted to evaluate our books. Samples are 35 who are between 30 and 80 years old. Abouttwo-thirds of them are between 50 and 70 years old and three-quarters of them are female. About the content ofpicture books, the questionnaire was introduced at the end of each class. About 60-80 % of samples showed that thepicture books had some parts which they didn’t know. This result pointed that the diffusion of knowledge about thehuman body is necessary for not only children but also their parents and the average citizen. We got the positiveanswer for using these books for children education.Their answers are categorized into 4 groups: “good to knowthe body”,“ suitable to children’s character” ,“ want to tell the content of books” ,“ excellence of books” . From thisstudy, we got impression that knowing t
  • Knowing our body:Evaluating teaching materials developed for preschoolers.
     12(2) 65-72 Jul. 2008 [Refereed]
    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the usefulness of teaching materials about the human bodydeveloped for children at preschools and kindergartens.Method: The targets were 599 five to six-year-old children from 19 preschools or kindergartens, and 93 parentsand teachers. The materials consisted of seven picture-story shows, each of which explained a system of thehuman body (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, musculoskeletal, nervous, urinary, and reproductive system), and aT-shirt depicting organs. Either a teacher or a participating researcher selected which system to introduce in eachpreschool/kindergarten. Data were collected through a survey of target attributes, material type, intended purpose,extent the purpose was fulfilled, implementation time, target and participant reaction, and the impressions of thosewho presented the materials. Analysis was carried out using the statistical software SPSS 15.0J and categorization.Results: The survey collection rate was 100% and the response rate for each survey item was 30-100% . The targetsconsisted of 193 males, 278 females, and 128 whose sex is unknown. Over 80% of the parents were m
  • Daily life experience of freshmen at a Nursing college.
     12(2) 25-32 Jul. 2008 [Refereed]
    Purpose: Recently, focus has been put on daily life experience of nursing students and how it might support theirlearning. However, there are few studies on nursing students’daily life experience in relation to readiness for nursing.The purpose of this study was to investigate daily life experience and actual behaviors of freshmen at a nursingcollege and to discuss their characteristics and factors affecting their daily life experience.Methods: Thirty-one first year students (freshmen) responded to a 33-item questionnaire about their behaviorsin everyday life that might be relevant to nursing and then carried out one of the two practical tasks: A) “wash atowel and hang dry” or B)“ clean up the area around the desk.” Actual behaviors during the task were observed andrecorded using a guide by an investigator. Data were quantitatively and descriptively analyzed.Results: Most students (83.9% ) had one or more siblings. All students had experience of four behaviors: dishwashing,changing into nightwear, wearing a Japanese kimono and paying attention to food particles around other people’smouths. Fewer than 50% of the students had experience of two behaviors: stirring
  • The Cohort Study of the Effects after Introducing the Program “Knowing Our Body“ for Pre-schoolers
    Nobuko Okubo, Toshiko Imai, Katsura Goto, Miwako Matsutani, Junko Tashiro, Michiko Hishinuma, Kyoko Iwanabe, Kazuo Shiraki, Yumi Sakyo, Akiko Ishimoto, Youko Setoyama
    The 2008 International Conference “Healthy People for a Healthy World“ Jun. 2008
  • Trial of 'Shadowing-Advanced' to Aid Transition to First Clinical Practice
    (34) 70-78 Mar. 2008
  • Analysis of Suitable Conditions for a Sitting Position Without Back Support for Patients in a Prolonged State of Impaired Consciousness.
    (34) 46-54 Mar. 2008
  • Examining the Outcome Measure of the Program for Preschool Age Children “Knowing Our Body“
    (34) 36-45 Mar. 2008
  • Acute Care Nursing for Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease: Preventive care for anticipated disuse syndrome in the chronic stage
    World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies/ 13th Interim Meeting/ 12th Asian-Australasian Congress of Neurological Surgeon Nov. 2007
  • Designing Picture Book of the Body for 5-6 Year Olds:Teaching Basic Knowledge about Health.
    Katsura Goto, Michiko Hishinuma, Kazuo Shiraki, Miwako Matsutani, Nobuko Ookubo, Yumi Sakyo, Hisako Nakayama, Akiko Ishimoto, Naoko Arimori, Kyoko Iwanabe
    The 6th International Nursing Conferece Nov. 2007
  • Application of Anatomical/Physiological to the Nursing Practice:From "Understanding"to"Practical Use"
    OKUBO Nobuko
    Japanese Journal of Art and Science 6(1) 23-25 May 2007
  • Evaluation of a Health Education Program for Five-year-olds “Let's Learn about Our Body: Digestive System“.
    (33) 48-54 Mar. 2007
  • Current Status of E-Learning in Japanese Universities and Colleges : Analysis of Web Sites and Literature Review
    OKUBO Nobuko, OHSAKO Tetsuya, HIRABAYASHI Yuko, NAKAYAMA Kazuhiro
    Bulletin of St. Luke's College of Nursing(30) 81-93 2004
    E-Learning is an advanced online technology method of continuing education in Japanese nursing colleges. E-Learning allows students to learn because they can adjust their work-time schedules and it removes physical access barriers to educational facilities. E-Learning is a two-way system between teachers and students through the Internet. This article is a report showing the present status of E-Learning at 33 universities and colleges in Japan identified as using this technology. Web site search results and a review of journal articles containing descriptions of E-Learning programs were analyzed using 10 factors : course name, course description, course philosophy, credit, cost, admission requirement, entrance examination, class-size limit, E-Learning educational content, and computer system tools. Among the 15 nursing college programs analyzed, only one nursing college introduced E-Learning into their master's course. In the 18 liberal arts university and college programs analyzed, we found many E-Learning course variations have been developed. There was no similarity among the various university and college programs related to cost, class size or course name, however, there were some similarities for these factors : 1. General public may take non-credit courses without an entrance examination. 2. E-Learning for continuing education had a limited number of non-credit courses and did not have a required entrance examination. 3. E-Learning programs for credit leading to a degree required a limited on-campus involvement (face-to-face education). 4. E-Learning for a master's degree also included passing a regular entrance examination plus the on-campus involvement requirement. We can use the experiences of these universities and colleges to advance E-Learning at nursing colleges in Japan. In addition, our research indicates success in E-Learning is enhanced by high quality on-line discussion between students and faculty as well as increasing students computer literacy skills. These are important steps to take for student retention in E-Learning programs.
  • A Survey of Physical Assessment and Nursing Skill Experience of Students at Their First Level Clinical Nursing Practice.
    (29) 40-46 Mar. 2003
    During their second year at 81. Luke's College of Nursing students learn physical assessmentand fundamental nursing skills and practice them in the hospital setting. As part ofcurriculum evaluation, we conducted a survey of students completing their second year inorder to clarify how? often they performed the various skills and how they evaluated their. abilities. 139 of 169 students (84%) completed a questionnaire that asked students to reportfrequency of doing each of 41 skills and then evaluate their ability on a 4-point scale. With regard to 21 physical assessment skills, there was variation in both experience andself-evaluation. All students reported performing vital signs and their self-evaluations werehigh. More than half reported doing inspection and auscultation of chest and lungs, and assessmentof an abdomen. Although self-evaluations for most skills averaged three orhigher, they tended to be lower for assessment of the heart, muscular-skeletal system, andnervous system.The focus of the 20 fundamental nursing skills were activities of daily living and basictreatments. All students reported making beds and arranging things for patients. More than70% performed
  • 根拠に基づく看護技術のデータベース化に関する研究 研究テーマ:看護技術の効果を裏付ける科学的根拠の探求
    菱沼典子, 石田陽子, 海野康子, 大久保暢子, 佐伯由香, 佐々木祐子, 高橋方子, 武田利明, 丸山良子
    根拠に基づく看護技術のデータベース化に関する研究 平成14年度 総括・分担研究報告書 7-68 2003
  • Teaching Structure and Function of the human Body Using a Nursing Framework : Student evaluations.
    (28) 82-89 Mar. 2002
    At St.Luke's College of Nursing anatomy, physiology and pathology are integratedunder the heading : structure and function of the human body. The subjects, fundamentalto nursing and taught in the first year, are presented as lecture and seminar and are focused to nursing.The nursing focus is realized through use of a framework that emphasizes the relationshipbetween the structures and processes that support biological life and the ADL(activities of daily living) of human beings. Structure and function of thehuman body is basic to understanding nursing practices. And it is also the basic knowledge for understanding changes of ADL caused by disease.Course evaluations by students for the years 1996 to 2000 indicate that students understoodabout the course objectives and the framework. However,their ratings of the degree to which they understood course content were lower. This paper presents these findings and discusses them in relation to the educational approachand improving teaching methods.
  • Analysis of clinical nurse's observations of patients with protracted consciousness disturbance-basis for determining improvement of their consciousness level
    Nobuko Okubo, Minako Shiro, Taeko Noujyo
    Proceedings of the 11th Annual Meeting of the Society for Treatment of Coma 11 3-8 2002
  • ベッドの居間化 「小物収納」具の実用化へのプロセス
    小澤 道子, 香春 知永, 横山 美樹, 岩田 多加子, 大久保 暢子, 佐居 由美
    聖路加看護学会誌 5(2) 43-43 Sep. 2001
  • Concept of Nursing Subject and Nursing Practice in the First-year Nursing Students.
    (27) 80-86 Mar. 2001
    The purpose of this study is to know the Nursing Subjects and Nursing Practice of the first-year nursingstudents, because “What is Nursing“ ls a very important question for nursing students and all of the nurses.In April 1997 and 1999, we conducted a questionnaire investigation on 169 first-year nursing students at the S College of Nursing (132 undergraduate course students, and 37 graduate students transferred from another course). “What is Nursing“was asked by using the open type question.The findings are as follows:1) Some 70% students grasp the Nursing Subjects as diseased and disabled people.2) The verbs used by students in describing Nursing Practice, are categolized into 81 kinds, such as ,'to take care, ' 'support' '~to do,' 'help,' 'give,' 'assist,' 'aid,' etc.3) As for Nursing Subjects, the group of the undergraduate course students and the group of graduate students transferred from another course, show similar responses, but different ones as for Nursing Practice.Further discussion is needed to develop student's Nursing Definition in Nursing education.
  • Improvement in Level of Consciousness after Sitting Without Back Support: Case Study of a Patient in a Persistent Vegetative State Using Kohnan Score and EEG
    Nobuko Okubo
    Proceedings of the 10th Annual Meeting of the Society for Treatment of Coma 10 83-94 2001
  • ナイチンゲールの考える看護婦像
    小澤 道子, 香春 知永, 佐居 由美, 岩田 多加子, 大久保 暢子
    聖路加看護学会誌 4(2) 56-56 Oct. 2000
  • A Team-Based Learning Experiment in the“ Anatomy and Physiology”
    (40) 128-134
    Team-Based learning(TBL)was introduced as part of the teaching method for the “Anatomy andPhysiology” course at St. Luke’s College of Nursing and the educational outcomes were examined. In aself-administered questionnaire survey administered to students, the majority of students gave a favorablereview. There was no difference in the research report scores or course evaluations from the previous year,and positive aspects were recognized in the year that TBL was implemented. Thus, the introduction of TBLinto the course can be considered educationally effective. However, given that TBL was implemented onlyonce, a greater human factor is required than the previous year’s teaching method and sufficient time forstudent self-learning must be ensured, and many expressed positive opinions about the teaching method usedin the previous year, there is a need to further examine teaching methods while considering human factorsand the amount of time set aside for self-learning.
  • The Activities and Vision of the International Affairs Committee.
    (39) 87-94
    The International Affairs Committee of St. Luke’s College of Nursing, originally established as theInternational Exchange Committee, changed its name in April 2012 to clarify the committee’s enhanced aimof promoting globalization at the college and preparing our students and teachers to play active roles in theworld. During the 2012-13 academic year, the committee implemented various projects such as Global HealthSeminars, short-term exchange programs with partner universities, collaborative activities with our studentcommittee, a trial NCLEX preparation course to study nursing and health topics in English, providinginformation through Facebook and Twitter, and a series of discussions with faculty and administrativeofficials on the future direction of globalization efforts at St. Luke’s. Future challenges for the committee are:to increase the number of partner universities through which we offer student exchange opportunities, todevelop a common system with partner universities for evaluating student achievement during exchangeprograms, to enrich study abroad opportunities with before and after activities, to set up a credit recognitionsystem for progr
  • The Characteristics of Students in Nursing University, and the Teachers' Devising for Their Classes
     14(2) 46-53
    The purpose of this study was to reveal: 1) the perception of the teachers in the Fundamentals of Nursing towardcharacteristics of students and 2) how they are devising the teaching-learning methods accordingly.Ten( 10) teachers from 7 nursing universities were interviewed on the following topics:1) their perception on characteristics of students; 2)what are devised in teaching methods. After that, other 5teachers from 5 nursing universities participated in focus-group-interview, in order to examine content validity.Result: Thirteen categories were extracted as the characteristics of students. [#1 increased number of studentswhose goals are not nursing] [#2 lowered ability of reading, writing, and comprehension] [#3 unable to makeown goal due to lack of positive attitude toward learning] [#4 seeking answers rather than thinking process] [#5worrying evaluation by teachers][ #6 apathy toward surround and weak interpersonal relationships][ #7 unable toaccept diversity of values][ #8 lowered in common sense and manner][ #9 good at use of IT][ #10 unable to image ahospital ward or a patient][ #11 unable to relate/use knowledg

Awards & Honors

  • Nov. 2018 Best Poster Ward Comparative investigation of bedside swallowing screening tools in Japan and Other countries

Research Grants & Projects

  • Establishment and evaluation of a strategy model for the diffusion of innovative nursing techniques in nursing practice
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Project Year: Apr. 2015 - Mar. 2020  
  • Disuse syndrome prevention program verification of stroke post-stroke patients with the aim of immediate home life from acute care hospitals
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Project Year: Apr. 2015 - Mar. 2019  
    For a patient with motor paralysis after stroke attack, as a help to prevent disuse syndrome, the clean support hand bath provided by a nurse was incorporated into a pleasant ADL recovery memory recall method and the effect was clarified. The six cases were divided into two groups: a hand-bath only group and a hand-and-hand holding group, and a hand-bath was performed for 10 days, and the degree of recovery of the joint movement range of the finger was judged as the effect. The range of movement of the distal phalanx joint on the hand side of the hand by hand bathing increased in all three in the exercise group and in the flooded group by one, but to a lesser extent. It was found that the hand movement range of the fingers was enhanced by incorporating the grip movement during hand bathing. Blood pressure and pulse did not change significantly in both groups, and safety was ensured.
  • An exploratory study of nursing care for patients with acute aphasia
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research
    Project Year: Apr. 2015 - Mar. 2019  
    The purpose of this study was to explore the condition of patients confused by the development of aphasia and establish a nursing-care guide. The specific procedure included: (1) Review of articles in Japan and overseas to understand psychological state of patients who had developed aphasia; the psychological state of aphasic patients and their families was then schematized; (2) Phenomenological analysis of experience of acute aphasic patients, combined with the results of similar analyses of psychological states obtained in (1), based on which suggestions and hints for future care were discussed; (3) A draft nursing-care guide was established based on the results of steps (1) and (2); (4) Interviews were conducted with persons who have recovered from aphasia and medical professionals to examine the internal validity of the draft; and (5) The nursing-care guide was completed after modification of the draft based on the results of internal validity examination.
  • Effect on parasympathetic nerve activity for "the favorite sound stimulation" in the persistent vegetative patient
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Project Year: Apr. 2013 - Mar. 2017  
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of 'favorite sound stimulation' on parasympathetic nervous activity in long-term bedridden patient such as the persistent vegetative patient. We assumed that listening to the favorite sound activates parasympathetic activity. Then, we examined the change of autonomic nerve activity and its emotional response due to the intervention of three kinds of sounds including the favorite sound. As a result, it can be said that the favorable sound stimulation brings enjoyment and comfort as an emotional response, but no significant change in parasympathetic nervous activity . Further detailed data analysis will be carried out in the future.
  • Development and evaluation of nursing tools for promoting the sitting position without back support: a care diffusion program for stroke patients
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Project Year: Apr. 2011 - Mar. 2016  
    A qualitative study was conducted, based on the diffusion of innovations theory, to develop nursing tools that help diffuse the sitting position without back support care for stroke patients among nurses. The following were found to be factors promoting the program: certified nurses or clinical nurse specialists acting as opinion leaders; development of core nurses; multidisciplinary/family cooperation; hospital ward culture; incorporation of care items in the electronic chart; program arrangement; and high relative advantage/trialability/compatibility. Impeding factors were: relocation of nurses; presence of nurses who refuse to use the sitting position without back support care; shortage of training materials; and low complexity/observability. Introduction, continuation, or discontinuation of the program depended on the number and intensity of promoting/impeding factors. It was considered important to modify the contents of the program.
  • Developing a Care Program Using a Sitting Position Without Back Support to Prevent Chronic Stroke Patients from Becoming Bedridden
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)
    Project Year: 2008 - 2010  
    A care program using a sitting position without back support was developed as a way to prevent chronic stroke patients from becoming bedridden. A sitting position without back support refers to an open-back position where the patient's feet are placed on the floor and the patient exercises autonomous neck control. This program included exercises necessary for assuming a sitting position, such as muscle training and activities for range of joint motion. In addition, a homepage, a pamphlet, and a support tool to facilitate care were created for the purpose of clinical application of this program. A verification of patient outcomes was also conducted. This program yielded results that included lengthening the amount of time the patients got out of bed and an increase in the family's desire for nursing care.
  • A Study on the Development of Computer Based Testing(CBT)for common Test for nursing colleges in order to keep quality of students' competency for clinical trial in hospitals.
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)
    Project Year: 2008 - 2010  
    With the rapid increase of the number of the nursing university, the importance of the evaluation of the nursing practice ability required by the end of graduation of the university increases. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a common test available in the nursing university throughout Japan to evaluate quality of Student's competency and knowledge required for a nursing student by a stage to begin the clinical trial in hospitals. I received a scientific research funds subsidy from 2008 through 2010 and, for the purpose of developing such common test to evaluate ability and knowledge required before the clinical trials in hospitals, 1,500 multiple choice items from 18 nursing domains were made and carried out monitor trials based on paper-pencil tests and computer tests (by means of CBT : Computer Based Testing) for the 730 students and 220 students respectively., By comparing both results,it follows that the usefulness of the computer examination was confirmed in comparison with of the paper-pencil tests,
  • Construct of introductory nursing courses program in the society of with a fewer number of children in Japan
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Project Year: 2007 - 2010  
    Upon entering nursing school, Japanese nursing students are already sophisticated users of various digital technologies and manuals. They typify 'Generation Y'. Their identified learning needs were: writing reports, scholarly discussion and web-site materials for nursing skills. Providing these materials decreased students' learning difficulties. The next step is to develop learning strategies to promote critical thinking processes that include trial and error learning.
  • "Nursing" and Its Structuring in Notes on Nursing
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Project Year: 2002 - 2005  
    This study explores the context in which the term "nursing" is used in Notes on Nursing (second edition), and clarifies the structure of meanings covered by this word. 1.We conjecture that Nightingale's attempt to establish the concept for the word "nursing" was intended to define nursing from the viewpoint of interrelationship between man, nature (science) and God, because she was aware of the growing scientific knowledge-oriented way of thinking after the Industrial Revolution, which tried to explain things focusing only the relationship between man and science. 2.Seven keywords are concentrated in the introduction section and the last chapter of this book : Nature, God, Providence, laws reparative, disease and health/healthy. These keywords are indicative of three propositions. The first proposition is that there exist the law of God and the law of life, the second is that disease is a reparative process where effort of nature works, and the third is that symptoms or pains of disease result from a lack, in whole or in part, of fresh air, sunlight, quietness and cleanliness. Based on these propositions, we can interpret Nightingale's definition of nursing, which may be summarized as follows : "Nursing is to minimize expense of vital power of the patient by properly maintaining fresh air, light, warmth, cleanliness and other requirements." The definition should be considered against the social background f the 19^ century, where development of natural science was undermining people's faith in God. It seems that Nightingale wanted to remind people of existence of "the law of God" which underlies "the law of nature," and to encourage man, who was endowed with divine nature, to demonstrate human nature by his own will. This suggests the significance of the "issue of spirituality and God" in understanding Nightingale's view of nursing. 3.We also compare Notes on Nursing and Suggestions for Thought, and find in the latter some common keywords, namely, "God" and "law", and additional keywords : "Truth", "Spiritual life", "Human Will" and "Religion", which suggests that further analysis of these keywords could help us obtain clearer meaning of "nursing." Considering the above aspects, Nightingale seemed to think that man can be one with God through spiritual life even in the process of pain and suffering during (physical) illness, and that nursing is a harmonious art of knowledge and practice, a creation of new "knowledge" (science) where "knowledge" in natural science and "knowledge" about God are combined.
  • The Effects of Nursing Intervention on Autonomic Nerve System and Daily Living Behaviors
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Project Year: 2000 - 2002  
    The first purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of nursing intervention on autonomic nerve activity and the activity of daily living. It was examined on healthy subjects by comparing between the positions that play an essential role in daily living. The heart rate variability was analyzed with CGSA, by comparison between the sitting positions. As the result, the sympathetic nerve activity increased and the parasympathetic nerve activity decreased by the minor changes. In addition, the influence of habitual exercise on the autonomic nerve system after doing exercise was studied on healthy subjects with CGSA The result shows that exercise habit should significantly influence biological regulation. And the HRV was measured during the application of hot compress to the lumber regions of patients. Then Wavelet analysis was made, and evaluated gas and/or stool. Even though the autonomic nerve activity were not changed immediately after the hot compress application, 38. 1% of patients had passed gas and. 52.4% of them had bowel movement. The second purpose of the present study was to elucidate comfortable feeling from the aspect of the autonomic nerve activity. Healthy subjects who were asked to calculate were divided into a group with or without receiving hot compress. The average skin temperature was compared. The result shows that the increased temperature by calculation task significantly decreased to the base line in the hot compress applied group. In addition, healthy subjects with foot bathing were divided into a group with or without calculation task. Then, the deep skin temperature and the skin conductance level were compared. The deep skin temperature decreased and the SCL increased in the calculation group. There was a significant difference between the groups. These findings suggest that there is relationship between feelings and physiological conditions and that nursing intervention may influence biological regulation.

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